Peščanik.net: Analiza sumnjivog doktorata Nebojše Stefanovića

Peščanik na svom sajtu objavljuje analizu doktorata Nebojše Stefanovića, bivšeg predsednika Skupštine Srbije i aktuelnog ministra unutrašnjih poslova. Autori: dr Uglješa Grušić (docent / lecturer, Univerzitet u Notingemu), dr Branislav Radeljić (vanredni profesor / senior lecturer, Univerzitet Istočni London) i Slobodan Tomić (doktorant, Londonska škola ekonomije i političkih nauka). GLASNO! prenosi tekst u celosti:

NAPOMENA: Sumnjive diplome, prvenstveno one stečene kao plod nepotizma ili korupcije, su među gorućim problemima visokog obrazovanja u Srbiji. Ovaj problem doprinosi teškoćama u kojima se naša zemlja nalazi – negativna selekcija, odliv mozgova, urušavanje sistema vrednosti, neinventivna i nekompetitivna ekonomija itd. Država i društvo moraju njime ozbiljno da se pozabave. Za početak, oni koji krše akademske i pravne norme moraju da odgovaraju. Međutim, nadležne institucije godinama ćute, pa preostaje da se mi kao građani pozabavimo ovim problemom.

Cilj ovog teksta je poziv na odgovornost, a ne lična diskvalifikacija ili nanošenje političke štete. Tokom pisanja teksta konsultovali smo više stručnjaka iz akademskog sveta kako bismo svoje tvrdnje višestruko verifikovali. Tekst se ne bavi političkim kontekstom. Planiramo da u budućnosti nastavimo analizu sumnjivih doktorskih disertacija i master radova javnih ličnosti, iz svih partija.

Srbija je preplavljena sumnjivim diplomama, kojima se ponose razni političari i partijski funkcioneri. Najpre kao građani, a potom i kao naučnici i prosvetni radnici koji imaju iskustvo u pisanju i mentorisanju doktorskih disertacija, odlučili smo da podvrgnemo stručnoj analizi sumnjive diplome javnih ličnosti. Krećemo od najupadljivijeg i najsvežijeg slučaja – bivšeg predsednika Narodne skupštine Srbije, a sada ministra unutrašnjih poslova u Vladi Republike Srbije, Nebojše Stefanovića. Prema zvaničnoj biografiji, ministar Stefanović je 2011. godine stekao zvanje magistra ekonomskih nauka na Megatrend univerzitetu, da bi juna 2013. godine, na istom univerzitetu odbranio doktorat. Tema doktorske disertacije je “Nova uloga strategijskog menadžmenta u upravljanju lokalnom samoupravom (primer grada Beograda)”.

Doktorske studije sa izradom disertacije obično traju od tri do pet godina i odlikuje ih mukotrpni rad i velika posvećenost. Doktorant mora da iščita na stotine naučnih članaka i knjiga, da se detaljno upozna sa stanjem oblasti koju istražuje, da savlada metode naučnog istraživanja i pronađe adekvatan metodološki pristup kako bi realizovao svoj naučni doprinos. Uz sve ovo, od doktoranta se očekuje da daje delove nacrta svoje disertacije mentoru na čitanje i komentarisanje, da posećuje naučne konferencije na kojima izlaže svoj rad i ideje, da taj rad i ideje objavi, da učestvuje u životu naučne zajednice kroz analizu radova drugih doktoranata. Kako je onda ministar Stefanović uspeo da u tako kratkom periodu doktorira, kada smo svakodnevno imali prilike da ga gledamo na televiziji kako rukovodi radom Narodne skupštine?

Na osnovu Zakona o dostupnosti informacija od javnog značaja, Megatrend univerzitet je Anđeli Milivojević, novinarki Centra za istraživačko novinarstvo Srbije, omogućio uvid u doktorski rad Nebojše Stefanovića, nakon čega je i nama dostavljena kopija. Detaljna analiza pokazuje da rad obiluje plagijatima, što je težak akademski prekršaj, a uz to još ne ispunjava ni uslove za uspešnu doktorsku disertaciju.

Plagijat je čin preuzimanja nečijeg pisanog rada ili ideje bez navođenja izvora, tj. priznavanja tuđeg autorstva. Drugim rečima, plagijat je akademska krađa. Pravila o akademskim prekršajima Londonske škole ekonomije i političkih nauka, na primer, propisuju da svaki pisani rad mora biti delo samog studenta. “Citati se moraju staviti između navodnika ili u poseban paragraf i njihov izvor se mora navesti. Parafrazirani materijal se mora označiti. Povreda ovog zahteva, namerno ili slučajno, ili predstavljanje rada drugih kao svog, je plagijat.” Sankcija za plagijat u doktorskim disertacijama je najstroža od svih akademskih sankcija i podrazumeva nedodeljivanje ili oduzimanje zvanja doktora nauka, uz mogućnost oduzimanja prava na žalbu višem univerzitetskom telu i izbacivanje sa univerziteta.

Univerzitet Harvard pojašnjava, u svom uputstvu o citiranju, da postoje dve vrste plagijata – doslovni i mozaički. Doslovni plagijat je kopiranje tuđih rečenica, a mozaički je preuzimanje delova tuđeg rada uz prepravke kako plagijat ne bi bio identičan originalu. Obe vrste plagijata su strogo kažnjive. Profesor Sima Avramović, dekan Pravnog fakulteta Univerziteta u Beogradu i bivši predsednik Saveta Univerziteta u Beogradu, takođe navodi dve vrste plagijata (15. januar 2012, Novosti). Prvi je uzimanje tuđih ideja, a drugi uzimanje delova iz različitih tekstova, bez navođenja autora. Obe vrste plagijata su neprihvatljive i kažnjive, dodao je profesor Avramović, ističući da su društveno-humanističke nauke naročito podložne plagijatima.

Doktorat ministra Stefanovića obiluje plagijatima. Dok su pojedini delovi njegove disertacije doslovno kopirani iz tuđih radova, bez odgovarajućeg navođenja, drugi su “mozaičkog” tipa. Navodimo samo nekoliko iz mnoštva primera:

– na strani 14 ministar Stefanović piše o samoupravi u Italiji i, između ostalog, kaže: “Nadzor nad radom lokalne samouprave, osnosno aktima opština i provincija, vrši nadzorni odbor regije, koji može imati svoje pododbore za određena upravna područja. Odbore čine eksperti…” – preuzeto bez navođenja iz knjige Decentralizacija kao polazište daljeg razvoja Srbije – priručnik, koju su Dejan Vučetić i Dejan Janićijević objavili 2006. godine, koji na strani 94 pišu: “Nadzor nad aktima provincije i opštine sprovodi nadzorni odbor regiona, koji može imati pododbore za različite upravne oblasti. Jedan takav odbor najčešće je sastavljen od eksperata…“;

– na strani 35 ministar Stefanović piše o Moldaviji – preuzeto sa strana 279 i 280 iz zbornika Jačanje lokalne vlasti, koji je uredila Emilia Kandeva 2002. godine, a koji se ovde ne navodi;

– na strani 48 ministar Stefanović piše o Austriji – parafrazirane strane 15 i 16 iz publikacije “Priručnik za uključivanje građana i civilnog društva u procese odlučivanja” autorke Snežane Đorđević iz 2011. godine, koja se ne spominje;

– na strani 57 ministar Stefanović je plagirao deo 16. strane publikacije Lokalna agenda 21: uvod u planiranje održivog razvoja, koju je Slobodan Milutinović objavio 2004. godine;

– na strani 59 ministar Stefanović piše sledeće: “Nerazvijene zemlje su osetljive na ograničenja u privrednom razvoju, jer su suočene sa nedostatkom potrebnih resursa, posebno kapitala i novih tehnologija”. Ovo je kopirano iz teksta Milane Mrkalj “Menadžment u funkciji održivog razvoja” iz 2012. godine, gde na strani 468 piše: “Nerazvijene zemlje i zemlje u razvoju su posebno osetljive na ograničenja koja njihovom privrednom razvoju postavlja ubrzani rast populacije i nedostatak potrebnih resursa, najčešće tehnologije i kapitala“;

– na strani 61 ministar Stefanović započinje novo poglavlje tako što kaže: “Osnovni uslov za efikasan menadžmenta (sic!) je demokratizacija upravljanja i angažovanje sposobnih kadrova za izvršavanje kompleksnih poslova i zadataka u lokalnim samoupravama”. Ovo je prepisano iz rezimea teksta Mehmeda Avdagića, Maje Radić i Dževade Avdagić “Demokratizacija menadžmenta u procesima promjena” iz 2012. godine u kojem stoji: “Jedan od osnovnih uslova za djelovanje menadžmenta promjena je demokratizacija upravljanja i okupljanje najsposobnijih kadrova za izvršavanje delegiranih poslova i zadataka“;

– na strani 77 rad ministra Stefanovića sadrži plagirane delove iz knjige Modeli lokalne organizacije lokalne samouprave: Slovenija, Hrvatska, Bosna i Hercegovina, Makedonija i Srbija, koju su uredili Zdravka Zlokapa i Dušan Damjanović 2008. godine;

– na strani 120 ministar Stefanović piše: “Najveće učešće javnih prihoda imaju Švedska (60%), Francuska (54%), i Danska (49%), dok najniže (ispod 20%) imaju Nemačka, Italija, Irska…” – svi ovi podaci su prepisani sa strane 27 iz zbornika Reforma sistema finansiranja lokalne samouprave, koji su uredili Antony Levitas i Gábor Péteri, a objavljen je 2004. godine, i ovde se ne navodi; takođe, ministar Stefanović na istoj strani dodaje “Učešće sopstvenih javnih prihoda u ukupnim lokalnim prihodima je ispod 25% u većini savremenih država (Mađarskoj – 32%, Poljska – 33%, Slovenija – 34%…” – svi ovi podaci su opet plagirani sa strane 28 iz gore navedenog zbornika;

– na strani 146 ministar Stefanović je plagirao uvodne delove sa strane 257 članka “Organizacione mogućnosti za poboljšanje procesa upravljanja ljudskim resursima u državnoj upravi” Srđana Isakovića i Lidije Marković iz 2012. godine; njegova čitava dalja diskusija o pobrojanim instrumentima je preuzeta iz ove publikacije;

– na strani 149 ministar Stefanović je preuzeo deo prvog pasusa sa strane 10 iz knjige Lokalni ekonomski razvoj – evropski putokaz ka modernoj lokalnoj samoupravi, koju su Vanesa Belkić i Milica Hrnjez objavile 2010. godine, a ovde se ne spominje;

– na strani 170 ministar Stefanović je plagirao tekst sa 74. strane knjige Efikasan opštinski menadžer, koju je izdao CeSID 2007. godine.

Većina gore pomenutih publikacija čak nije ni navedena u spisku literature na kraju ministrovog rada.

Što se tiče ostalih kriterijuma neophodnih za uspešnu doktorsku disertaciju, ostaje nejasno kako je ministar Stefanović stekao pravo da brani doktorat samo dve godine nakon sticanja zvanja mastera. Pravilnik o postupku primene i uslovima za odbranu doktorske disetacije Megatrend univerziteta propisuje da kandidat “pravo da brani doktorsku disertaciju stiče u VI semestru” pošto “položi sve ispite propisane nastavnim planom i programom doktorskih studija” (član 2). Pošto je ministar Stefanović okončao master studije tokom 2011. godine, on u trenutku odbrane doktorske disertacije nije mogao imati više od pet celih semestara provedenih na doktorskim studijama.

Ministrov rad ne ispunjava ni minimalne tehničke standarde. Doktorat sadrži nedopustivo mali broj fusnota u samom tekstu, samo 41, od kojih čak 29 upućuje na svega dva zbornika radova o uporednim iskustvima lokalnih samouprava koje je izdala Magna Agenda. Jednako je problematično i to što se autor u radu poziva na izvore koje ne navodi konkretno (navodimo jedan od brojnih primera – na strani 58 ministar Stefanović kaže “Evropska komisija je 2001. godine usvojila novu strategiju održivog razvoja, koja je razmatrana na više sastanaka u narednom periodu”, ali ne precizira na koju strategiju i sastanke misli).

Rad ministra Stefanovića je daleko ispod standarda doktorata u pogledu sadržine i naučnog doprinosa. On ne nudi pregled stanja svoje naučne discipline, ne objašnjava ključne debate i dosadašnje empirijske nalaze, ne objašnjava glavne argumente i kako njegov rad pravi korak dalje u nauci (kroz otkrivanje novih zakonitosti, dokazivanje, opovrgavanje ili reformulisanje dominantnih teorija, iznošenje originalnih empirijskih nalaza koji daju relevantne zaključke itd.). Kako je onda moguće da je komisija odobrila jedan takav rad imajući u vidu da pravilnik Megatrenda propisuje da “Doktorska disertacija treba da sintetizuje iprimeni stečena znanja da bi se, uz originalan naučni doprinos oblasti kojoj pripada tema doktorske disertacije, rešio konkretan teorijski ili praktičan ekonomski problem. Doktorska disertacija sadrži pregled dosadašnjih naučnih dostignuća iz oblasti kojoj tema pripada a na kojima će kandidat graditi naučni doprinos oblasti” (član 10)?

Dalje, tema doktorata ne odgovara u potpunosti onome što je u njemu i napisano. U naslovu disertacije grad Beograd je naveden kao studija slučaja. Međutim, sadržaj ukazuje da se samo jedno od 16 poglavlja konkretno bavi Beogradom (13. poglavlje je u sadržaju najavljeno pod nazivom “Istraživanje – studija slučaja na primeru grada Beograda”). Da iznenađenje bude veće, stvarni naziv poglavlja 13, koje počinje na strani 148 disertacije, je drugačiji! Ono glasi: “Upravljanje ekonomskim razvojem lokalne samouprave u Srbiji”. Budući da nijedno poglavlje nije fokusirano na grad Beograd, rad ministra Stefanovića ne zadovoljava uslov koherentnosti jer se njegova tema i ono što je zapravo napisano ne poklapaju.

Po pitanju metodologije, autor navodi na strani 11 da će primeniti “deduktivni, induktivni, komparativni, sintetički, i analitički metod”, bez objašnjavanja kako će svaki od njih biti korišćen, niti njihove prednosti i mane u datom kontekstu. A onda se kaže da će se koristiti i “multipla multivarijantna regresiona analiza ili Spirmanova formula, u zavisnosti od fenomena”. Ukratko, regresiona analiza je kvantitativna metoda kojom se meri uticaj jednog ili više faktora na određeni fenomen. Da bi se sprovela, potrebni su podaci koji predstavljaju indikatore tih faktora. Međutim, u Stefanovićevom radu ne postoji nijedan deo sa takvim kvantitativnim podacima, pa logično – nema ni regresione analize.

Rad, međutim, obiluje površnim i suvišnim prepričavanjem iskustava lokalnih samouprava drugih evropskih zemalja, koje je daleko od ozbiljne komparativne analize. Čitav doktorat je zapravo deskriptivnog karaktera, sa eklektičkim spajanjem raznih opisa koji niti daju smislenu celinu, niti sadrže istraživačku vrednost. Autor ne navodi kako je došao do hipoteza, zašto su one bitne, niti izvodi njihove provere i valjane analize. Neke od “hipoteza” su čiste tautologije (na primer, “efikasnija lokalna samouprava – veća ekonomičnost u radu”). Stoga zvuči neverovatno da Profesor Mića Jovanović, rektor Megatrenda, daje disertaciju ministra Stefanovića svojim doktorantima “kao primer izuzetno dobrog rada, posebno u oblasti metodologije naučnog istraživanja” (30. april 2014, Pressonline).

Poenta ovog teksta nije da dobar političar ili partijski funkcioner treba da ima dobar doktorat, već poziv na odgovornost. Osoba koja je spremna da “progura” kao doktorat naučno bezvredan rad koji ne ispunjava minimalne kriterijume nije podobna da obavlja javnu funkciju. Pristupanje Evropskoj uniji je strateški prioritet Vlade Srbije. Ugledajmo se onda na evropske primere. Anet Šavan, bivši nemački savezni ministar obrazovanja, je morala da podnese ostavku u februaru 2013. godine, nakon što je dokazano da je plagirala doktorat. Istu sudbinu je 2011. godine doživeo i Karl-Teodor zu Gutenberg, tadašnji nemački ministar odbrane i najbliži saradnik kancelarke Angele Merkel. U Mađarskoj se sličan slučaj desio sa bivšim predsednikom Pal Šmitom 2010. godine. U svom ekspozeu Narodnoj skupštini, predsednik Vlade Aleksandar Vućić naveo je da je zabrinjavajuće što “školovani kadar koji ostaje [u Srbiji] u velikoj meri ima diplome sumnjivog kvaliteta zahvaljujući urušenom obrazovnom sistemu”. Evo prilike da predsednik Vlade i ostale nadležne institucije reaguju, i reči potkrepe delima.

Peščanik.net, 01.06.2014.

20 thoughts on “Peščanik.net: Analiza sumnjivog doktorata Nebojše Stefanovića

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